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There are no data on the distribution of oriental theileriosis in cattle from Bosnia and Herzegovina. For the first time, a possible endemic focus of Theileria orientalis infection was confirmed in specific areas of Pale municipality, Sarajevo-Romanija region, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Selective sampling included 30 cattle from 10 smallholder farms in several locations in Pale municipality. The total of 30 whole blood samples were screened for the presence of piroplasms using commercial PCR. Positive PCR products were sequenced in both directions, the sequences were analyzed and a phylogenetic tree was created. Piroplasm (Babesia/Theileria-specific) DNA fragments were detected in 13/30 examined cattle (43%). At the farm level, PCR-positive animals were identified in 6/10 examined farms (60%). Upon sequence analysis, the species Theileria orientalis was confirmed. This survey reports a high rate of PCR-positive cases of bovine piroplasmosis and provides the first description of Theileria orientalis in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
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