Main Article Content
Introduction. The Red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is an endangered species of the Psittacine family, and for which various data are important for a comprehensive preservation plan. Data about plasma protein gel electrophoresis of Amazon parrot blood are scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma protein concentrations and concentrations of major protein bands in blood of young and adult Red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis).
Materials and Methods. Blood samples from eight young and eight adult healthy free-living parrots were obtained. Plasma protein concentration and fractions were determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare variables.
Results and Conclusions. Six major protein bands with the following molecular weights were identified by SDS-PAGE: 170 kDa, 117 kDa, 85 kDa (putative ovotransferrin), 60 kDa, 45 kDa and 23 kDa. Adult parrots had significantly higher concentrations of total proteins, albumin and other proteins with similar mobility (around 60 kDa). Young birds had significantly higher levels of 23kDa proteins. The concentration of putative ovotransferrin (85 kDa) was not different between young and adult parrots. Plasma protein gel electrophoresis patterns in Red-tailed Amazon parrots are similar between young and adult animals, but specific protein bands differ in their absolute concentrations. This finding should be taken into consideration when clinical pathology
data are analysed.
Authors retain copyright of the published papers and grant to the publisher the right to publish the article, to be cited as its original publisher in case of reuse, and to distribute it in all forms and media. Articles will be distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY 4.0).
Archer, F. J., Battiston, A. L. 1997. Differences in electrophoresis patterns between plasma albumins of the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) and the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Avian Pathology 26: 865-870.
Brandt, L. W., Clegg, R. E., Andrews, A. C. 1951. Journal of Biological Chemistry 19: 105-111. Clubb, S. L., Schubot, R. M., Joyner, K. 1991. Hematologic and serum biochemical reference intervals in juvenile macaws. Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians 5: 154-162.
Cray, C., Rodriguez, M., Zaias, J. 2007. Protein electrophoresis of psittacine plasma. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 36: 64-72.
Engberg, R. M., Kaspers, B., Schranner, I., Kösters, J., Lösch, U. 1992. Quantification of the immunoglobulin classes IgG and IgA in the young and adult pigeon (Columba livia). Avian Pathology 21: 409-420.
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 2016. Red list of Threatened Species, Version 2015. 2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org
Kuryl, J., Gasparska, J. 1985. Preliminary report on two new plasma protein polymorphisms in the goose (Anser anser). Animal Blood Groups and Biochemical Genetics 16: 9-12.
Laemmli, U. K. 1970. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227: 680-685.
Lumeij, J. T. 2008. Avian clinical biochemistry. In Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 6th ed. Eds. Kaneko, J. J., J. W. Harvey, and M. L. Bruss, San Diego, Academic Press, pp. 839-872.
Schmidt, E. M. S., Lange, R. R., Ribas, J. M., Daciuk, B. M., Montiani-Ferreira, F., Paulillo, A. C. 2009. Hematology of the Red-capped parrot (Pionopsitta pileata) and Vinaceous Amazon parrot (Amazona vinacea) in captivity. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 40: 15-17.
Sick, H. 2001. Ornitologia Brasileira. Nova Fronteira, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
Tojho, H., Miyoshi, F., Uchida, E., Niiyama, M., Suyto, B., Moritsu, Y., Ichikawa, S., Takeuchi, M. 1995. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns of chicken serum in acute inflammation induced by intramuscular injection of turpentine. Poultry Science 74: 648-655.
Tothova, C., Nagy, O., Kovac, G. 2016. Serum proteins and their diagnostic utility in veterinary medicine: a review. Veterinarni Medicina 61: 475-496.
Vaz, F. F., Locatelli-Dittrich, R., Sipinski, E. A. B., Abbud, M. C., Sezerban, R. M., Schmidt, E. M. S., Dittrich, J., Cavalheiro, M. L. 2015. Hematologic and total plasma protein values in free-living Red-tailed Amazon parrot nestlings (Amazona brasiliensis) in Paraná State, Brazil. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 29: 187-191.
Vaz, F. F., Locatelli-Dittrich, R., Beltrame, O. C., Sipinski, E. A. B., Abbud, M. C., Sezerban, R. M. 2016. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals of free-living Red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) nestlings on Rasa Island, Paraná, Brazil. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 45: 615-622.