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Consumers of food and other products now demand sustainability of production methods and, for most people, the welfare of production animals is an important component of sustainability. Products are not considered to be of good quality unless the welfare of the production animals is good. This is part of a more general change in knowledge that there are few differences between humans and other animal species, with the conclusion that each individual life should be valued and that causing poor welfare to a farmed animal is morally wrong. All vertebrate animals and some invertebrates are now shown to be sentient, that is they have the capacity to have feelings. There have been major advances in animal welfare science so that housing and management systems that result in poor welfare of the animals are now identified and every producer needs to change their systems and methods to ensure good welfare and avoid all of the worst welfare problems.
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