Are pandemics associated with intensive livestock production?

Main Article Content

Ole Alvseike
Tore Skeidsvoll Tollersrud
Bojan Blagojevic


Covid-19 has awakened the world to the importance of infectious diseases. However, it also affected several people, including researchers, as well as some organizations to blame the pandemic on intensive livestock production. Several factors contribute to the fact that the next pandemic is less likely to come from intensive livestock farming than from wild animals and traditional small-scale livestock production. However, there are also the facts that support the role of intensive production in spreading of diseases. One Health - the interaction between the health of humans, animals and the environment has received a lot of attention. Livestock production plays a role in these interactions, but is not a primary driver for the development of new pandemics.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Alvseike, O., Skeidsvoll Tollersrud, T. ., & Blagojevic, B. (2021). Are pandemics associated with intensive livestock production?. Veterinarski Glasnik, 75(1), 33-41.
Mini Review


Alvseike O., Tollersrud T. S. 2020. Pandemier og husdyrhold. Kjøttets tilstand, 20-27, Animalia, Norway, Oslo.

Andersen K. G., Rambout A., Lipkin W. I., Holmes E. C., Garry R. F. 2020. The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nature Medicine, 26: 450–455.

Angeletti S., Lo Presti A., Cella E., Ciccozzi M. 2016. Molecular epidemiology and phylogeny of Nipah virus infection: a mini review. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 9(7):630–634.

Boni M. F., Lemey P., Jiang X., Lam T. T., Perry B., Castoe T., Rambaut A., Robertson D. 2020. Evolutionary origins of the SARS-CoV-2 sarbecovirus lineage responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Nature Microbiology, 5:1408-1417.

Broder C. C., Weir D. L., Reid P. A. 2016. Hendra virus and Nipah virus animal vaccines. Vaccine, 34(30):3525-3534.

CDC 2019. 8 Zoonotic Diseases Shared Between Animals and People of Most Concern in the U.S.

CDC 2020. Deadly infections.

EFSA/ECDC 2019. The European Union One Health 2018 Zoonoses Report. EFSA Journal, 17: 5926.

Hsieh Y.-H., Ma S., Velasco Hernandez J. X., Lee V. J., Lim W. Y. 2011. Early outbreak of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) in Mexico prior to identification of pH1N1 virus, PLoS ONE, 6(8), e23853.

Jones B. A., Grace D., Kock R., Alonso S., Rushton J., Said M. Y. 2013. Zoonosis emergence linked to agricultural intensification and environmental change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(21): 8399–8404.

Kadanali A, Karagoz G. 2015. An overview of Ebola virus disease. Nothern Clinics Of Istanbul, 2:81.

Karesh W. B., Cook R. A. 2009. One world—one health. Clinical Medicine, 9:259-260.

Kim J. Y. 2016. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza in Korea. Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, 79:70-73.

Morse S. S., Mazet J. A. K., Woolhouse M., Parrish C.R., Carroll D., Karesh W.B., Zambrana-Torrelio C., Lipkin W. I, Daszak P. 2012. Prediction and prevention of the next pandemic zoonosis. Lancet, 380(9857): 1956–1965.

Parrish C. R., Holmes E. C., Morens D. M., Park E., Burke D. S., Calisher C. H., Laugghlin C. A., Saif L. J., Daszak P. 2008. Cross-Species Virus Transmission and the Emergence of New Epidemic Diseases. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 72(3): 457–470. DOI: 10.1128/MMBR.00004-08

Peiris J. S., de Jong M. D., Guan Y. 2007. Avian influenza virus (H5N1): a threat to human health. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 20: 243–267. DOI: 10.1128/CMR.00037-06

Thrusfield M. 1986. Veterinary Epidemiology, 1st Edition. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN: 9781483161907

Wan Y., Shang J., Graham R., Baric R. S. Li F. 2020. Receptor recognition by novel coronavirus from Wuhan: an analysis based on decade-long structural studies of SARS. Journal of Virology,

WHO 2020. SARS-CoV-2 mink-associated variant strain – Denmark. Disease Outbreak News of 6 November 2020.

Worldometers 2021.